Federal ministries as well as several commercial and non-commercial organizations are responsible for the fulfilment of these measures. The latter, attributed to local differences of single-industry cities, form 3 main groups:. The most important are aimed at transition to sustainable development, economic restructuring, innovations in industrial technological processes and management, and a new look at future social municipal development. A new deep-restructuring program was adopted in to reduce operational costs and increase labour efficiency in the mining and refinery factories.
However, this program has dramatic consequences for employees — their number was reduced significantly: from 11, in to 7, people at the beginning of Didyk, ; List, Investments into eco-projects in Kirovsk were 3. Good resources and a high potential for the tourist industry development, especially related to winter sports and mountain hiking in summer, are the main options of current sustainable development of the town. Kirovsk is the major skiing center in the northwest of Russia.
Tracks of various degrees of complexity have a total length of about 30 km. Six ski-tracks slalom, giant slalom, super giant and downhill have certificates of FIS Murmanskstat, Tracks for freestyle correspond to international standards. Eight rope tows and a chair lift are organized for tourists on the slopes of Ajkuajvechorr, Rasvumchorr and Kukisvumchorr mountain ridges. Recently, a new plan aimed at developing recreation and tourist infrastructures was elaborated; Kirovsk will receive new park zones, hotels, transport routes, etc. CIP, , , ; Didyk, , Strategia…, In the first half of , 65 individual businessmen and 15 small private enterprises mainly in social services were registered in Kirovsk figure 5.
The majority of them received consulting and financial support www. Figure 5. Growth of the number of citizens involved into small business brown column and number of small private enterprises blue column. Source: CIP, , , It will coordinate small and medium-size innovative enterprises presenting outsourcing departments for the big business CIP, As a OSD territory, Kirovsk receives preferences in social-economic development, aimed at promoting external business investments via flexible tax policy, creation of new working places for local population, etc.
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CIP, ; Tikhonova, Mentality is connected with innovations and traditions, though many of them are rather contradictive. Market economy promotes individualism opposite to traditional collectivism typical for northern communities supplemented by the traditions of the socialist period. Municipal authorities via mass media local broadcasting company and newspapers inform citizens about the history of Kirovsk and outstanding people who were born there.
Annually they arrange folk and sports festivals, promoting local identity development beneficial for civic engagement in innovative practices. Geological, ecological, economic, humanitarian departments of the Kola branch of the Russian Academy of sciences RAS situated in the town of Apatity are involved in different research activities directed at local sustainable development problems: advanced mining and ore processing technologies elaboration, industrial wastes processing technologies corresponding to economy greening, nature conservation, ecological risks control, human health improvement, etc.
The Botanical garden — Institute belonging to RAS the Russian Academy of science situated in Kirovsk, which has contributed largely to greening of the town till now, will be involved into this project as well. The Kola Scientific Centre Rus. Murmanskstat, Municipal mass media are used as an open platform for such discussions. A new program for directed at rubbish pollution control and improvement of sanitary management municipal scheme was adopted in Nature conservation…, Investments for municipal plans for infrastructure development in the budget are estimated at 3,, Economy diversification support is another important factor promoting transition to sustainable development.
The tourist sector appeared to be in the focus of this process. The Complex Investments Development plan for Kirovsk, adopted in , includes different scenarios of economy diversification and touristic activities, paying a special attention to an infrastructure.
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They are directed at multiple outdoor recreation activities: hiking, skiing, alpinism. The Complex Investment Development plan CIP, implementation will be managed by a Coordinating Center made up of municipal administration and investors. To meet this challenge plus ecological challenges see below long-term plans for city development highlight the transition to a diversified local economy.
The development of the tourist industry is planned to receive , tourists every year CIP, Modern touristic infrastructures, the proximity relevant to Russian territory to big cities — St. The growing problems of unemployment connected with the policy of the town-forming mining company that is rationalizing its operations and cutting personnel Didyk, ; Didyk, Ryabova, ; Fondahl, Wilson, are in need of economic diversification. The strategic urban development program Forecast, also gives the highest priority to the social sphere.
Dushkova and Evseev, The mining complex is of vast dimensions, and hence there are large deposits and large areas that have been scarred by mining activity, especially severe at the open cast apatite mine near Kirovsk figure 2 which produces activization of unfavourable processes: landslides, stone falls, earthquakes, avalanches. Mechanical disruptions of soils and ground are found in those territories. This value is over six times higher than the Russian mean of 4. Various skin diseases can be attributed to high concentrations of polluting agents in the atmosphere.
The morbidity level of workers from the processing factories especially diseases of the osseous-muscular system, silicosis etc. Heightened death rates from cancer for workers of the processing factories in Kirovsk are also typical Dushkova, Evseev, This is connected with some toxic compounds emission during technological processes.
To improve the health situation, a Regional Centre for Occupational Diseases was established in Kirovsk in the Soviet time. They are still working at the present time. Nevertheless, the ecological disturbances are still connected with separate territories and beyond them no vivid anthropogenic changes are noticeable. Besides, pollution load is much less compared to other regional industrial centres — Monchegorsk, Nickel, etc. An important object for environmental protection and tourist industry development is the Khibiny National Park figure 6.
Figure 7. Population dynamic in Kirovsk. It may be surprising, however, that some territories beyond the Polar circle with harsh climate conditions and short vegetation period are actively used by their residents not only for recreation but also for agricultural production potatoes, black currant, green vegetables, etc. During the overall socio-economic crisis in the late s, the local government started a gradual allocation of a land to employees for allotments Rus. Today, inhabitants of Kirovsk continue the active use of these plots dachas and gardens as an additional source of income — for growing production for home consumption or informal market sale.
It must be mentioned in this respect that those who work in subpolar regions, excluding private sector, may receive Federal money support for transport expenditures to get to popular resorts once in 2 years Krasovskaya, ; Didyk, No more industry receives priorities in land use. Recreation and nature conservation land use patterns attract the growing attention of local authorities because they may contribute to social-economic development for a long period originating from permanent supply of ecosystem services but not from exhaustible mineral resources.
Climate warming trends will be followed by higher winter temperatures, prolongation of vegetation period, increase in precipitation during the warm period.
According to data of Konstantinov et al. Climate change social response is contradictive: the growth of biological productivity of local ecosystems, which increases their resilience, longer warm period, which may decrease heating length, milder winters, etc. Summer temperatures rise and growing frequency of anomaly climatic events — summer draughts produce a risk of forest fires. Winter heavy snowfalls and sharp rises in air temperatures increase the risk of avalanches.
Human health effects of climate change include increased occurrence of weather-related health disturbances as a consequence of weather instability, increased respiratory morbidity, as well as the spread of bacteria and viruses at anomaly temperatures background Dushkova, Evseev, Other negative consequences of climate changes are connected with flooding in some Khibiny valleys.
They are aimed at identifying priorities for actions and projects on the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions and adaptation to climate change for the Murmansk region as well as at integrating climate strategies into the programs of socio-economic development for the region. This fact may partly explain why these Strategies primary not always reflected the needs of community.
The road about 30 km long had to cross the area of the Nature Park Didyk, Local ecological NGOs were strongly against the road construction.
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To resolve the conflict, the regional government initiated the creation of a commission with the participation of various interested parties, including representatives of mining companies, ecological NGOs and research organizations. The conflict was actively discussed in the local media and among the members of Internet communities. Public hearings, obligatory according to the Federal legislation planned for , were not used for a long time while construction works continued.
The decision negated the road construction and satisfied the demands of local environmentalists Didyk, Ryabova, However, post-socialist urban study still has a great number of question marks and dilemmas to be discussed Berki, ; Bruno, ; Tsenkova, The case of Kirovsk shows that though this town still has strong relation to the period of socialism as its natural resources determine the leading role of industry in the economic development, it is ready to diversify economy via tourism development.
The case of Kirovsk confirms the shift in the Russian policy in the north: economy diversifying based on innovative technologies corresponding to green economy pattern with a special concern of life quality.
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This may be regarded as a positive turn to achieve sustainable development goals. In this regard Kirovsk as a post-Soviet single-industry town in northern Russia presents a fascinating arena at the crossroads of development ideas supported by scientific research activities of the local RAS department and international research community. For a long period, mining activities initiated urban development and shaped the everyday life of citizens, education and health sectors as well as the infrastructure and welfare of the residents.
At the same time, industrialization caused negative environmental impact during the whole period of mining and processing. Turbulent reconstruction period demonstrates the shift from an authoritarian type of governance, weak civil society institution etc. Ecological and social-economic problems in the focus of public attention present a promoting factor for adoption of mitigating measures.
Analysis of various urban transformations in Kirovsk linking the economic development and restructuring and socio-economic reforms highlights driving forces and challenges on the way to sustainable development typical for similar single-industry towns in the north of Russia.
Economy diversifying, implementation of sustainable mining practices initiated by environmental friendly innovative management may help to transit to a new land use pattern and nature management. Participatory approaches allow to link economy, management and policies interests. A special Federal program directed at single-industry towns revitalization wherever it is possible is underway since Accepting a status of OSD territory Kirovsk receives preferences in economic planning and development. Moreover, Kirovsk and Russia in whole can play a crucial role in the formation of sustainable development and the new global economy since it has vast natural capital and critically important ecosystem services that contribute to the sustainability of the biosphere and provide economic benefits to all mankind.
Its vast areas untouched by economic activity, colossal forests and wetlands, freshwater resources and biodiversity are all major potential contributors to the formation of the new economy in the world. Berki M.
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Bobylev S. Bolotova A. Representation of Powers and Needs, Farnham, Ashgate. Dale B. Didyk V. Dushkova D. Evseev A. Fondahl G.
Gunderson L. Hassan A. Heininen L. Heleniak T. Herrschel T. Hirt S. Kinossian N. Kislov A.