Under the U. Constitution, law and order is primarily a matter of state concern.
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As a practical matter, when military forces are necessary to maintain domestic order and enforce the laws, state militia forces under state control i. Air Force, with active federal forces to include "federal" reserve component forces other than the National Guard being the least politically palatable option. Maoist military-political theories of people's war and democratic centralism also support the subordination of military forces to the directives of the communist party although the guerrilla experience of many early leading Communist Party of China figures may make their status as civilians somewhat ambiguous.
In a essay On Correcting Mistaken Ideas in the Party , Mao explicitly refuted "comrades [who] regard military affairs and politics as opposed to each other and [who] refuse to recognize that military affairs are only one means of accomplishing political tasks", prescribing increased scrutiny of the People's Liberation Army by the Party and greater political training of officers and enlistees as a means of reducing military autonomy . In Mao's theory, the military—which serves both as a symbol of the revolution and an instrument of the dictatorship of the proletariat —is not merely expected to defer to the direction of the ruling non-uniformed Party members who today exercise control in the People's Republic of China through the Central Military Commission , but also to actively participate in the revolutionary political campaigns of the Maoist era.
Civilian leaders cannot usually hope to challenge their militaries by means of force, and thus must guard against any potential usurpation of powers through a combination of policies, laws, and the inculcation of the values of civilian control in their armed services.
The presence of a distinct civilian police force, militia , or other paramilitary group may mitigate to an extent the disproportionate strength that a country's military possesses; civilian gun ownership has also been justified on the grounds that it prevents potential abuses of power by authorities military or otherwise.
Opponents of gun control have cited the need for a balance of power in order to enforce the civilian control of the military. The establishment of a civilian head of state , head of government or other government figure as the military's commander-in-chief within the chain of command is one legal construct for the propagation of civilian control. Ambiguity over when the President could take military action without declaring war resulted in the War Powers Resolution of American presidents have used the power to dismiss high-ranking officers as a means to assert policy and strategic control.
Truman relieving Douglas MacArthur of command in the Korean War after MacArthur repeatedly contradicted the Truman administration's stated policies on the war's conduct, and Barack Obama 's acceptance of Stanley McChrystal 's resignation in the War in Afghanistan after a Rolling Stone article was published where he mocked several members of the Obama administration, including Vice President Joe Biden.
Differing opinions exist as to the desirability of distinguishing the military as a body separate from the larger society. In The Soldier and the State , Huntington argued for what he termed "objective civilian control", "focus[ing] on a politically neutral, autonomous, and professional officer corps". Conversely, the tradition of the citizen-soldier holds that "civilianizing" the military is the best means of preserving the loyalty of the armed forces towards civilian authorities, by preventing the development of an independent " caste " of warriors that might see itself as existing fundamentally apart from the rest of society.
In the early history of the United States, according to Michael Cairo,. Combined with the idea that the military was to embody democratic principles and encourage citizen participation, the only military force suitable to the Founders was a citizen militia , which minimized divisions between officers and the enlisted. In a less egalitarian practice, societies may also blur the line between "civilian" and "military" leadership by making direct appointments of non- professionals frequently social elites benefitting from patronage or nepotism to an officer rank.
A more invasive method, most famously practiced in the Soviet Union and People's Republic of China , involves active monitoring of the officer corps through the appointment of political commissars , posted parallel to the uniformed chain of command and tasked with ensuring that national policies are carried out by the armed forces. The regular rotation of soldiers through a variety of different postings is another effective tool for reducing military autonomy, by limiting the potential for soldiers' attachment to any one particular military unit.
Some governments place responsibility for approving promotions or officer candidacies with the civilian government, requiring some degree of deference on the part of officers seeking advancement through the ranks. Historically, direct control over military forces deployed for war was hampered by the technological limits of command, control, and communications ; national leaders, whether democratically elected or not, had to rely on local commanders to execute the details of a military campaign , or risk centrally-directed orders' obsolescence by the time they reached the front lines.
The remoteness of government from the action allowed professional soldiers to claim military affairs as their own particular sphere of expertise and influence; upon entering a state of war, it was often expected that the generals and field marshals would dictate strategy and tactics, and the civilian leadership would defer to their informed judgments. Improvements in information technology and its application to wartime command and control a process sometimes labeled the " Revolution in Military Affairs " has allowed civilian leaders removed from the theater of conflict to assert greater control over the actions of distant military forces.
Precision-guided munitions and real-time videoconferencing with field commanders now allow the civilian leadership to intervene even at the tactical decision-making level, designating particular targets for destruction or preservation based on political calculations or the counsel of non-uniformed advisors. This helps to ensure a non-partisan military and ensure smooth and peaceful transitions of power. Political officers screened for appropriate ideology have been integrated into supervisory roles within militaries as a way to maintain the control by political rulers. Historically they are associated most strongly with the Soviet Union and China rather than liberal democracies.
While civilian control forms the normative standard in almost every society outside of military dictatorships , its practice has often been the subject of pointed criticism from both uniformed and non-uniformed observers, who object to what they view as the undue "politicization" of military affairs, especially when elected officials or political appointees micromanage the military, rather than giving the military general goals and objectives like "Defeat Country X" , and letting the military decide how best to carry those orders out.
By placing responsibility for military decision-making in the hands of non-professional civilians, critics argue, the dictates of military strategy are subsumed to the political, with the effect of unduly restricting the fighting capabilities of the nation's armed forces for what should be immaterial or otherwise lower priority concerns. The " Revolt of the Admirals " that occurred in was an attempt by senior US Navy personnel, to force a change in budgets directly opposed to the directives given by the Civilian leadership.
President Bill Clinton faced frequent allegations throughout his time in office particularly after the Battle of Mogadishu that he was ignoring military goals out of political and media pressure—a phenomenon termed the " CNN effect ". Politicians who personally lack military training and experience but who seek to engage the nation in military action may risk resistance and being labeled " chickenhawks " by those who disagree with their political goals.
In contesting these priorities, members of the professional military leadership and their non-uniformed supporters may participate in the bureaucratic bargaining process of the state's policy-making apparatus, engaging in what might be termed a form of regulatory capture as they attempt to restrict the policy options of elected officials when it comes to military matters. An example of one such set of conditions is the " Weinberger Doctrine ", which sought to forestall another American intervention like that which occurred in the Vietnam War which had proved disastrous for the morale and fighting integrity of the U.
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The process of setting military budgets forms another contentious intersection of military and non-military policy, and regularly draws active lobbying by rival military services for a share of the national budget. Nuclear weapons in the U.
During his tenure, Secretary of Defense Donald Rumsfeld raised the ire of the military by attempting to reform its structure away from traditional infantry and toward a lighter, faster, more technologically driven force. In April , Rumsfeld was severely criticized by some retired military officers for his handling of the Iraq War , while other retired military officers came out in support of Rumsfeld. Although no active military officers have spoken out against Rumsfeld, the actions of these officers is still highly unusual.
Some news accounts have attributed the actions of these generals to the Vietnam war experience, in which officers did not speak out against the administration's handling of military action. Later in the year, immediately after the November elections in which the Democrats gained control of the Congress, Rumsfeld resigned. As of , military dictatorships , where there is no civilian control of the military, are: [ citation needed ]. Other countries generally have civilian control of the military, to one degree or another.
Strong democratic control of the military is a prerequisite for membership in NATO [ citation needed ].
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Strong democracy and rule of law, implying democratic control of the military, are prerequisites for membership in the European Union [ citation needed ]. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Prehistoric Ancient Post-classical Early modern Late modern industrial fourth-gen. Blitzkrieg Deep operation Maneuver Operational manoeuvre group. Grand strategy. Military recruitment Conscription Recruit training Military specialism Women in the military Children in the military Transgender people and military service Sexual harassment in the military Conscientious objection Counter recruitment.
Arms industry Materiel Supply chain management. This section needs expansion. You can help by adding to it. February Main article: political commissar. Problems of War and Strategy. See also: Wikiquote: Mao Zedong. An Essay on Civilian Control of the Military. Retrieved Department of State International Information Programs. Baltimore: The Johns Hopkins Press. Records of the Federal Convention of New Haven: Yale University Press.
Faculty Publications — Political Science. Paper On Correcting Mistaken Ideas in the Party. Law portal Crime portal.
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Contract theory Critical legal studies Comparative law Feminist Fundamental theory of canon law Law and economics Legal formalism History International legal theory Principle of legality Rule of law Sociology. But you can make sure they know you understand how hard it is to give up control. Sometimes just talking helps. By expressing their feelings, caregivees might be more appreciative. You can also express yourself.
At best, this takes time. Dementia and loss of memory are terrifying. I see firsthand how fears of these two scare my year-old mom, who watched her mother and sister suffer from sad, debilitating cognitive decline. Start with the steps below. You have to take care of yourself to effectively help anyone else. Caregivers are at great risk for depression and are more likely to lapse into poor health habits such as an unhealthy diet or lack of exercise.
In fact, if managed well, the experience of caring for an older family member has the potential to bring relatives closer as you help this person through this final stage of life. This tendency can grow even more pronou nced under the strain of caregiving. You may be convinced that your family member is no longer capable of driving, while your brothers argue that he needs to maintain his independence.
Financial concerns can influence decisions about where the person should live, whether or not a particular medical intervention is needed and whether he can afford a housekeeper.
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These conflicts are often fueled by ongoing resentment over income disparities and perceived inequities in the distribution of the family estate. The primary caregiver might assume this role because he lives near the family member, is perceived to have the fewest obligations or has the closest relationship with the person. Whatever the reasons, the situation is likely to make him resentful. As soon as the person begins to have health problems, initiate regular family meetings with your siblings and other family members who will be involved in her care.
The goal is to share information and make decisions as a group; the meetings can also be a source of support and provide a forum for resolving disagreements. If all or some of you live in different parts of the country, the meetings can be held by conference call. There are now many free conference call services available, such as Skype , FreeConferenceCall.
If possible, reserve a little time at the end of the meeting or conference call to chat and catch up.
A fair division of labor can mitigate resentment and make caregiving more efficient. The family meeting is an excellent venue for setting up a caregiving schedule and dividing up tasks. Most families have taboo subjects that everyone avoids. Sometimes the topic is a sensitive one, like a drinking problem or a family tragedy, but often family members avoid speaking up because they are afraid of hurting feelings — or simply because openness has never been part of the family culture.
In a calm, quiet moment — perhaps at the next family meeting — explain how you feel in a matter-of-fact, nonconfrontational way. Try to be concrete and specific when you ask for help. Likewise, if another sibling or family member is doing most of the caregiving, offer support and encourage her to express her frustrations and talk about what would make it easier for her. If you live far from your family member and other relatives are responsible for most of the care, be sure to offer support.
Check in often to see how things are going and to offer whatever assistance you can. Ask about how the caregiver is doing and be a sounding board for frustrations and concerns. Be patient if the caregiver needs to vent.