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And, the West uses unleavened bread? Could someone help me understand the symbology behind using the two types of bread i. If I don't receive an answer today Friday , its okay. I'd still like to know for me. Thank you - again! Denise Baptized Byzantine Catholic, but attended Roman Catholic masses growing up, due to being moved around alot, mostly in the midwest, where there were not many Byzantine Catholic churches.

Joined: Jul The Third Rome. The first part of the Liturgy derives its name from the early Christian custom of the people offering bread and wine and all else that was needed for the Liturgy. Therefore, each small loaf of the bread which is used in it is termed a "prosphora," another word meaning offering. This bread or prosphora must be leavened, pure, and made of wheat flour.

The prosphora must be round and formed in two parts, one above the other, as an image of the two natures of Jesus Christ, divine and human. Joined: Aug Washington, PA. Deacon Lance.

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The Churches that use leavened bread see in the risen bread the Risen Christ. The Churches that use unleavened bread see it as the bread of purity having avoided the leaven of sin and the pharisees as well as a connection to the Jewish Passover meal in which Christ instituted the Eucharist. Azumos was the word used for unleavened bread. Artos definately means leavened. This is proven by the Greek word "artos", which means risen and comes from the root word "airon" meaning "to rise".

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If Jesus would have been celebrating a Holy Feast of Passover and had used leavened bread, He would have broken the law and sinned. In the Passover, only unleavened bread is allowed. The Jews are so exact about purging out the leaven, that today they completely clean out the kitchen of all leaven to make it "kosher". Alexandr, I know azymes refers to unleavened bread. I have read scholars that state what I state, artos can mean leavened bread specifically or all bread including azymes generically. There is also no agreement among scholars as to whether Christ celebrated the Eucharist on Passover or before it.

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Joined: Jan At any rate, the Catholic Church recognizes the validity of both leavened and unleavened bread for use in the celebration of the Holy Eucharist. Of course, Eastern Catholic Churches use leavened bread like their counterparts in Eastern Orthodoxy.

However, as has been discussed in these forums a while back, the Maronites no EO counterpart use unleavened bread and the Armenian Churches, Catholic and Orthodox, also use unleavened bread. Does anyone know what the Assyrians and the Copts use? Joined: Sep Hollidaysburg, PA. Here is a description of the bread used by the Syriac Orthodox Church. It seems to be somewhere between the argument of leavened vs. I copied this from the official website of the Syriac Orthodox Church.

In accordance with our ecclesiastical tradition, the bread to be consecrated for Holy Liturgy is a flat cake made of wheat dough mixed with a small portion of leaven and salt and is imprinted with a special seal. On preparing the dough, the priest, in keeping with the ancient tradition of our Church, uses as yeast a part of the dough used for baking the bread for Liturgy the previous time. This is another expression of the oneness and unity of the sacrament of Communion offered in our churches all over the world from the apostolic times.

Joined: Dec Louis, MO. Originally Posted by Slavipodvizhnik. The Byzantine Forum provides message boards for discussions focusing on Eastern Christianity though discussions of other topics are welcome.

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The views expressed herein are those of the participants and may or may not reflect the teachings of the Byzantine Catholic or any other Church. The Byzantine Forum and the www. All posts become property of byzcath. Contents copyright - Forum All rights reserved. Powered by UBB. Prosphora may also bear images of the Mother of God or the saints. During the Divine Liturgy, the Lamb, the portion of bread which later will be transubstantiated into the Body of Christ, is removed in a special rite from one of the prosphora, known as the "lamb" prosphoron.

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Pieces are removed from other, smaller prosphora, in commemoration of the members of the Earthly and Heavenly Church. At the close of the Liturgy, these particles are placed into [the Chalice with] the Blood of Christ. Small prosphora are for those who have offered lists of commemorations to be read in the Altar. Pieces of the prosphoron from which the Lamb was taken are called antidoron instead of the Gifts, Greek.

According to the ustav, they are to be consumed by those who have not communed of the Holy Mysteries. Artos yeast-risen bread, Greek is bread which is blessed on the night of Pascha. Throughout Bright Week, the artos, a symbol of the Risen Christ, remains on an analogion before the Royal Doors of the Altar, and is carried in the daily Paschal Processions of the Cross.

Prosphoro and Artos

On Bright Saturday, following the reading of a special prayer, it is broken into pieces and distributed to the faithful. In pious folk custom, the Artos and the Holy Water blessed on Theophany have been held to be, for those who are dying without the possibility of Communion, a possible substitute for the Holy Gifts.


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Prosphora, artos, and antidoron are to be eaten on an empty stomach, and with prayer. Sanctified bread must be kept in a clean container, apart from other food products. According to tradition, the artos is divided into little pieces, to be consumed over the course of the year, from Pascha to Pascha. Another form of sanctified bread is that which is distributed to the faithful during the Vigil on the eves of great feasts.


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In times past, evening services were quite lengthy, and during the services Christians would consume bread in order to keep up their strength. Now, although the duration of services has been shortened, this custom has been retained. O Lord my God, may Thy holy gift and Thy holy water be unto the enlightenment of my mind, unto the strengthening of my spiritual and physical powers, unto the health of my soul and body, unto the taming of my passions and weaknesses, according to Thy limitless mercy, through the prayers of Thy Most-pure Mother and of all Thy Saints.

Complete list of relics. While all the materials on this site are copyrighted, you may use them freely as long as you treat them with respect and provide attribution on the Russian Orthodox Cathedral of St. John the Baptist of Washington DC. Site page. From the book Fundamentals of Orthodoxy Prayer Before Consuming Prosphora and Holy Water O Lord my God, may Thy holy gift and Thy holy water be unto the enlightenment of my mind, unto the strengthening of my spiritual and physical powers, unto the health of my soul and body, unto the taming of my passions and weaknesses, according to Thy limitless mercy, through the prayers of Thy Most-pure Mother and of all Thy Saints.

Relics in cathedral - monthly calendar.